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River Wildlife in Cornwall

Wildlife found within the rivers of Cornwall significantly contributes to the area's ecological richness, shaping an enthralling variety of biodiversity. A multitude of species, encompassing fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and various invertebrates, call these rivers their home, co-existing within a lush milieu of aquatic plants. Recognizing and preserving the inhabitants of these waterways is integral to sustaining the environmental equilibrium and health of the Cornish landscapes. This document seeks to delve into the multifaceted realms of Cornwall's riverine wildlife, focusing on its essential role, the existing threats, conservation measures and the potential future challenges and opportunities.

Overview of Cornwall's rivers

Cornwall is strewn with a rich tapestry of rivers, flowing through diverse terrains, from striking coastlines to scenic countrysides. Home to a remarkable spectrum of species, waterways such as the Camel, Fal, Fowey, and Tamar thread through the expanse of woodlands, wetlands, and pastures, offering necessary sustenance for life to flourish. Renowned for their crystalline waters, stony stretches, and gravelly beds which provide optimal conditions for fish to spawn and multiply, these rivers are aesthetically pleasing as well as serving as critical habitats for spectacular species diversity, rendering them vital ecosystems in Cornwall.

Importance of river wildlife conservation

The preservation of wildlife dwelling within the rivers of Cornwall is a critical concern, given their multi-faceted values spanning ecological, economic, and cultural domains. These riverine species contribute significantly to the well-being and functionality of aquatic ecosystems, augmenting water quality. They help catalyze recreational pursuits including fishing, bird-spotting and canoeing, thereby driving tourism and bolstering the local economy. Far from being just biotic entities, these organisms embody Cornwall's cultural traditions and folklore. Conservation undertakings strive to protect and revitalize wildlife habitats, populations, and biodiversity, thereby safeguarding the riverine inhabitants for the enjoyment and appreciation of future generations. The variety of fish species in Cornwall's rivers greatly enhance the biodiversity and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems. Gaining knowledge about these fish varieties and their specificity is integral to their preservation and effective management.

Native fish species in Cornwall

Several indigenous fish types inhabit the waterways of Cornwall, each uniquely attuned to their environment. Prominent native varieties include the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and bullhead (Cottus gobio). These diverse fish species have evolved to flourish in Cornwall's rivers, performing essential ecological functions, such as maintaining the balance of prey and facilitating nutrient turnover.

Threats to fish populations

The fish populations within Cornwall's waterways face numerous perils that can dramatically influence their population and dispersion. Key threats include pollution, habitat destruction, excessive fishing, and the introduction of alien species. Degradation of water quality by pollutants such as agricultural wastewater can negatively influence fish health and reproductive capabilities. Modifications to environments, like building dams or removing vegetation along river banks, can disrupt migratory and breeding patterns of fish. Overexploitation and the introduction of non-native species can overshoot or act as predators for local fish, causing their numbers to dwindle.

Conservation efforts for fish species

Various initiatives have been undertaken to safeguard and preserve Cornwall's fish species. These range from introducing protected zones with fishing regulations, implementing habitat rebuilding projects to enhance fish environments, and conducting surveillance programs to measure fish population tendencies. Education drives play a key role in highlighting the primacy of sustainable fishing methods and advocating for the preservation of indigenous fish species. The effective execution of these conservation initiatives requires a cooperative approach from governmental bodies, conservation groups, and local communities.


The rivers flowing through Cornwall are vital living spaces accommodating a variety of mammal species. There is a distinct diversity among the mammal inhabitants, featuring well-known species like otters amongst others. These mammals are a reflection of a thriving river ecosystem health, and they each play their role in creating a balanced ecological equilibrium within these environments. The knowledge and study of these mammalian populations within Cornwall's rivers are essential tools for shaping efficient conservation strategies and management initiatives.

Otters in Cornwall's rivers

Cornwall's rivers are a natural haven for one of the most recognised mammal species - otters. These captivating mammals have seen a successful resurgence in recent years, thanks largely to consistent conservation efforts. The rivers in Cornwall act as perfect homes, offering generous quantities of food and ideal breeding spaces for the otters. The otters contribute significantly to preserving the well-being of the river systems. Their existence signals a robust water quality, suggesting a well-stocked food supply chain. It’s integral to keep track of otter numbers and safeguard their habitats to ensure the enduring protection of Cornwall’s river ecosystems.

Other mammal species found in river habitats

Aside from otters, Cornwall's rivers host a plethora of other animal species, including interesting ones like water voles, mink, bats, and varied rodent types. Each species has developed unique mechanisms to suit the riverine environment. Water voles, for instance, construct their homes in riverbank burrows, while bats take advantage of the river-adjacent flora for their nesting and feeding needs. A deep understanding of the spread, habits and population dynamics of these species aids in evaluating the comprehensive health of Cornwall’s river ecosystems and supports the continuation of their conservation.


In the varied landscapes of Cornwall's rivers, birds hold an integral position, amplifying the biodiversity in each ecosystem. Displaying remarkable adaptability, these winged creatures can be spotted year-round, distingushing themselves by their unique array of species. This rich assortment ranges from petite songsters such as the humble robin or the vibrant Eurasian blackbird, to more majestic water-dwellers, the mallard and the statuesque grey heron. These rivers create a bountiful source of sustenance and shelter for the birds, their presence acting as a strong signal of the ecosystem’s health.

Common bird species along Cornwall's rivers

The riparian surroundings of Cornwall's rivers are brimming with common bird species, whose adaptability has allowed them to become natives in these habitats. Among these frequently seen species are the captivating kingfisher, distinguishable by its brilliant blue and orange plumage; the small but tenacious dipper, who plunges headfirst into water to secure its meal; and the gentle grey wagtail, memorable for its striking yellow undercoat. Other species that punctuate the avian diversity of these river ecosystems range from the docile moorhen, stately mallard, to various gull and duck species.

Seasonal bird migrations and their impact on river ecosystems

The pulsating rhythm of seasonal bird migrations inextricably influences Cornwall's river ecosystems. As diverse avian species journey to and from Cornwall, they encourage a dynamic shift within the bird community. Offers fertile ground for nesting and breeding, this ebb and flow ushers in new genes into the local bird populations. Moreover, the migration cycle initiates changes in the availability of food resources and nesting areas along the rivers. A comprehensive understanding and continual examination of these periodical movements thus become vital tools to evaluate the collective health of river ecosystems and design effective safeguards for their conservation.

Reptiles and Amphibians

Reptiles and amphibians are crucial players in the biodiversity of Cornwall's river systems. These ectothermic creatures are perfectly suited to the aquatic environments found in the area. Whether it's sunning themselves on the banks of rivers or hunting prey in the water, the behaviors of these creatures are truly captivating. They also serve as valuable barometers of environmental health. By tracking their population numbers and understanding their habitats, researchers can better gauge the health of Cornwall's rivers. With their rich life cycles and various activity patterns, reptiles and amphibians constitute a significant portion of the local riverine wildlife.

Reptile species in Cornwall's rivers

A number of reptile species claim Cornwall's rivers as their home. For instance, the common European adder (Vipera berus), a venomous snake, is quite at home near the borders of water sources where they catch some rays to control their body heat. Similarly, the slow worm (Anguis fragilis), although technically not a snake, is also native to these riverine habitats. This snake-like lizard feeds primarily on slugs and other small creatures, thereby helping to preserve the balance of the habitat. Another species found around Cornwall's rivers is the grass snake (Natrix natrix). These expert swimmers are often found inhabiting reed beds along the river. These reptiles play an indispensable role in safeguarding the fragile ecology of Cornwall's river bodies.

Amphibious Species

Many amphibian species view Cornwall's rivers as crucial breeding grounds. The common frog (Rana temporaria) frequently aggregates near the water during mating season, leaving behind clear egg masses attached to aquatic plants. Smooth newts (Lissotriton vulgaris), another amphibian local to these rivers, migrate to placid river expanses, including ponds and slow-moving river segments, for reproduction. Equally, Palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) are frequent visitors to these rivers, often utilizing underwater vegetation for the deposition of eggs. Hence, by providing optimal breeding grounds, Cornwall's rivers play a pivotal role in ensuring robust populations of these amphibians.


Invertebrates occupy an immeasurably important position in the river ecosystems of Cornwall, where they perform critical functions, including water quality indication, and delivery of vital services such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. Mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies are among these invertebrates and serve as an essential source of nutrition for fish and other riverine wildlife. Their ubiquitous presence in the rivers emerges as an indication of a thriving, balanced ecosystem. Recognizing the breadth and profusion of invertebrate species is fundamental for the comprehensive conservation of rivers in Cornwall.

Importance of invertebrates in river ecosystems

The indispensable role of invertebrates is well recognized in the river ecosystems of Cornwall, where they encapsulate the pillars of the ecosystem's structural and functional integrity. Comprising insects and crustaceans, these invertebrates fulfil myriad ecological roles. They are the lynchpins of nutrient recycling, disintegrating organic material and accelerating the decomposition process. Furthermore, they sit at a critical intersection in the food chain, being primary consumers for a rich diversity of organisms. The prospering of invertebrates and their diversity mirror the well-being of river ecosystems, and their conservation is cardinal to preserving the ecological equilibrium.

Threats to invertebrate populations

Invertebrate populations in Cornwall's rivers confront several challenges that jeopardize their existence. Principal among these concerns is water pollution, which arises from agricultural outflows, industrial waste residues, and sewage effluents. Such pollutants can destabilize the finely calibrated balance of river ecosystems and have a direct repercussions on invertebrates. Additionally, the degradation of habitat due to the stripping of riparian vegetation and modification of natural waterways imposes an adverse effect on invertebrate habitats and diminishes their populations. Alterations in water temperatures and flow patterns spurred by climate change present another peril for the invertebrate population in Cornwall's rivers.

Conservation efforts for river invertebrates

Numerous protective measures and conservation initiatives have been launched to safeguard and perpetuate the river invertebrates in Cornwall. The focus of these efforts is concurrently placed on water quality enhancement via pollution abatement measures and encouragement of sustainable land utilization methodologies. The resurrection of riparian habitats and provision of buffer zones aid in augmenting invertebrate habitats and offering sanctuaries to many species on the brink of vulnerability. Conservation entities also channel resources into bolstering public understanding and awareness of the significance of invertbrates in river ecosystems. With commitments to monitoring schemes, research and habitat regeneration projects, these endeavors aspire to counteract threats and uphold the perpetuity of river invertebrates in Cornwall.

Plants and Vegetation

In the rivers of Cornwall, the flora plays a pivotal part in determining the ecological health and operations of these environments. Actively contributing to nutrient recycling, serving as a shelter and food source for numerous species, and aiding in the stabilization of riverbanks are among the many roles they play. Notably, the aquatic plants are an indispensable component of these river ecosystems, encompassing species like water lilies, common reeds, and water crowfoots, all of which flourish in aquatic surroundings. Accompanying these are the riparian plants, found along the riverbanks. These flora function as buffers that impede erosion and filter out pollutants on their way to the water. Knowing and understanding the various plant species and their respective roles is fundamental to guaranteeing the preservation and safeguarding of the river wildlife in Cornwall.

Aquatic plants in Cornwall's rivers

The rivers of Cornwall are rich with a diverse spectrum of aquatic plants, each uniquely adapted to life in water. Offering shelter, food, and breeding grounds for numerous aquatic organisms is a significant function they serve. Included among the most commonly found species are the Water Milfoil, Bogbean, and Water Forget-Me-Not. The roles they play extend to oxygenating the water bodies and maintaining water clarity by limiting suspended sediments. These plants further contribute to the stability of the riverbed, impeding erosion and fostering overall river ecosystem health. Recognizing and preserving the multifaceted aquatic plant-life in Cornwall's rivers is key in maintaining the delicate equilibrium of these habitats.

Riparian vegetation and its role in river ecosystems

Serving as a significant supporter of the biodiversity and health of river ecosystems, the riparian vegetation, which consists of plants residing near Cornwall's rivers, is indispensable. Dominating these riparian zones are trees such as oaks, alders, and willows, which supply shade and cooling effects, essential for regulating water temperature. Acting as robust physical barriers, this dense vegetation minimizes the influx of pollutants and sediment into the water, thereby enhancing water quality. Additionally, riparian plants help stabilize riverbanks, restricting erosion induced by powerful currents or flooding. Providing diverse resources such as fruits, leaves, and insects, they act as a critical food source for a variety of terrestrial and aquatic species. It's essential to acknowledge the remarkable worth of this riparian vegetation and advocate for its protection and rejuvenation, for the sake of maintaining the ecological wellbeing of Cornwall's rivers and the diverse fauna that rely on these habitats.

Water quality

With regards to Cornwall's aquatic environments, water quality holds paramount significance for the wellbeing and persistence of river fauna. It indicates a broad range of physical, chemical, and biological variables, each having its influence on the habitat of organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Factors such as the level of nutrients, dissolved oxygen, pH value, temperature, and contamination can substantially alter the quality of water. The process of observing and maintaining high-quality water is vital for safeguarding and preserving river wildlife residing in Cornwall.

Impact of water pollution on river wildlife

Water contamination is a considerable menace for the vast array of wildlife that populates the rivers of Cornwall. Various sources yield pollution; these include agricultural activities, industrial operations, and residential waste. The release of damaging materials like chemicals or an overabundance of nutrients can degrade the vitality of river ecosystems. Effects of pollution can ignite a cascade of issues such as oxygen impoverishment, harmful algal blooms, and a buildup of toxic compounds in the food web, which end up harming fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and aquatic vegetation. Addressing water contamination is mandatory to protect the delicate equilibrium of river wildlife in Cornwall.

Monitoring and improving water quality in Cornwall's rivers

Supervising and enhancing the water quality in Cornwall's rivers is a critical undertaking in the preservation of river wildlife. Routine monitoring initiatives scrutinize the water's physical and chemical particulars, alongside identifying the presence of contaminants. The data gathered from such surveillance pinpoints areas needing attention and encourages the execution of customized strategies aimed at water quality improvement. Policy enforcements like stringent waste control measures, curbing agricultural discharge, and modernization of wastewater treatments can contribute to pollution abatement. The joint efforts of governing bodies, wildlife preservation societies, and local inhabitants are instrumental in overseeing and enhancing water quality, thereby safeguarding the diverse wildlife dependent on Cornwall's river ecosystems.

Habitat Restoration

Habitat rehabilitation forms a pivotal touchstone of preservation activities for aquatic biodiversity in Cornwall. By recuperating and enhancing inherent dwellings, essential requisites and conditions fostering different species survival, and propagation are provided. Rehabilitation elements include stream bank reconstruction, invasive species eradication, riffle and pool formation, and vegetation embellishment along the banks of the river. Habitat repair extends beyond the advantage of individual creatures and boost overall creek ecosystems' robustness and vitality. It aids in maintaining bio-diversity, bolster food chains, and facilitate vital ecological services.

Importance of habitat restoration for river wildlife

The relevance of rehabilitating habitats for creek fauna in Cornwall is invaluable. River biospheres consistently face adversities due to human activities like pollution, alterations in land usage, and habitat severance. Consequently, numerous species have observed a reduction in population dimensions and distributions. Habitat might plays an instrumental role in offsetting these unfavorable trends. It ensures the provision of apt and operative habitats for an array of organisms, including fish, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and plants. Rehabilitated habitats extend refuge, feeding prospects, breeding areas, and connectivity, facilitating wildlife to flourish and enrich healthy river ecosystems.

Examples of successful habitat restoration projects

Previous endeavours of successfully accomplished habitat regeneration projects dedicated to ameliorating conditions for river wildlife are well-documented in Cornwall's annals. One distinguished project channelled efforts towards restoring deteriorated riverside regions by sowing indigenous flora and fortifying disintegrating riverbanks. This initiative not only mitigated sediment accumulation and erosion but also escalated habitat intricacy and conditioned more amicable survival environments for fish, water birds, and other species. Another commendable project was characterised by the removal of obstructions and the fabrication of aquatic pathways, granting migratory fish kinds like the salmon and sea trout, unhindered access to their traditional spawning territories. The triumph of these initiatives bear testament to the positive impact of habitat restoration in augmenting the revitalisation and preservation of river wildlife in Cornwall.


Ecotourism presents a compelling method to advocate for the protection of Cornwall's riveric wildlife. It does so by creating experiences and guided trips that highlight the vast range of creatures residing within these water bodies, hence deepening the tourists' appreciation for these natural dwellings. Local tour operators and conservation bodies join forces, ensuring the tours are conducted dutifully towards the environment. This approach not only heightens visitor's understanding of the necessity of river wildlife preservation and the risks these species face, but it also exposes them to the conservation actions being taken to secure their survival. In doing so, ecotourism not only enhances public awareness, but the income it generates aids in the continuation of conservation campaigns.

Promoting river wildlife conservation through ecotourism

Various methods are used in Cornwall's drive to endorse river wildlife conservation via ecotourism. Tour providers and local conservation teams work together, incorporating educational elements into their excursions, all with an emphasis on the critical need to safeguard, cherish and appreciate the cornucopia of life within Cornwall's rivers. These outings cater to visitors keen on gaining a firsthand experience of river inhabitants like fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and vegetation. Furthermore, the revenue accrued from ecotourism goes into supporting local conservation projects and habitat revitalization. By inviting tourists to play a part in this conservation endeavor, ecotourism serves as a critical catalyst in spreading awareness and encouraging a spirit of custodianship among sightseers.

Educational programs and initiatives for raising awareness

Myriad educational campaigns and initiatives have been launched in Cornwall focusing on increasing consciousness about river wildlife conservation. These efforts reach out to everyone: local inhabitants, tourists, school-going children, and residents alike. Guided excursions, workshops, interactive exhibits, are all on offer at Education outposts and natural preserves, each providing a detailed understanding about the significance of river ecosystems and the myriad lifeforms they nourish. Alongside emphasizing the threats to the river wildlife population, these initiatives also underscore how personal actions can contribute to conservation endeavors. Furthermore, an effective partnership with local educational institutions ensures that topics related to conservation remain integral to the school's curriculum, thereby instilling the future generation with a profound appreciation and understanding of Cornwall's riveric wildlife.

The Law

In Cornwall, all manners of river life, from fin to feather, shell to leaf are sheltered under an umbrella of legal and conservation-based provisions. The objective of these protective measures centres around the preservation of the plethora of fishes, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, flora and riverine vegetation that enliven Cornwall's rivers. The protective shield extends from local to national legislation aimed at supporting the sustenance and conservation of river wildlife and their domiciles. To bolster this, numerous organisations bear the torch of implementing these protective elements, to assure not just the survival but the thriving of these riverine creatures.

Laws and regulations for protecting river wildlife in Cornwall

In the scenic locale of Cornwall, a detailed legal scaffold ensures the safeguarding of river wildlife. An essential pillar in this scaffold is the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. This Act emphatically disallows actions that harm, disrupt or cause distress to protected species, their nests or breeding abodes. Moreover, it extends its protection to listed landmarks of importance. Complementing this, both the Water Resources Act 1991 and the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2016 focus on managing water extraction, pollution control, and water quality to guard the habitats and species gracing Cornwall's rivers.

Role of conservation organizations in enforcing protection measures

Conservation entities in Cornwall shoulder an imperative responsibility in bringing to life the protective measures set for river wildlife. These organizations don the hats of facilitators, working in harmony with governmental bodies, local populace, and other interested groups to ensure the preservation and responsible management of river systems and habitats. From comprehensive studies and monitoring of wildlife population to public education and lobbying for robust conservation legislations, their role is multifaceted. Further, these organizations often engage in partnership with law enforcement machineries to counteract illicit operations like wildlife trafficking and destruction of habitats. Their concerted efforts intend to contribute substantially towards the active execution and successful implementation of the legal and regulatory framework that underlie the life force of Cornwall’s river wildlife.

Future Challenges

As we cast our gaze on the horizon, Cornwall's river wildlife is presented with a multitude of forthcoming obstacles and possibilities. The most formidable hurdle we face is the environmental shift driven by climate change, clashing with the ecosystems we know today. Modifications such as increasing temperatures, fluctuating rain patterns, and the intensifying frequency of severe weather act as destabilising factors for river environments, influencing species survival and geographic distribution. However, glimmers of hope are found in the opportunity for innovative, sustainable river management strategies that serve as a counterforce to these challenges. Through executing habitat restoration, conservation agendas, and endorsing ecotourism and education, we can build towards a future where Cornwall's rivers remain fruitful and nurture a wide array of wildlife species.

Climate change impacts on river wildlife

Climate change imposes a great risk to the wildlife inhabiting Cornwall's rivers. The fluctuations in weather patterns can modify river dynamics, causing temperature and rainfall changes that can harm the quality of the water and instigate variations in the river flow. Ecosystem disruption can also affect eating and breeding habits of diverse forms of river-dependent life from fish to reptiles, birds, and plants. Rising sea levels impose new threats, such as saltwater encroachment which can convert freshwater environments and severely affect its existing inhabitants. It's an imperative task to recognize these impacts and continuously monitor them to devise effective conservation measures, mitigating the detrimental effects of climate change on Cornwall's river wildlife.

Innovative approaches for sustainable river management

Securing the longevity and wellbeing of Cornwall's river wildlife is reliant on the innovative methods we employ for sustainable river management. These techniques prioritize the preservation and restoration of natural river processes and habitats, while also addressing human requirements. Some of these innovative approaches include green infrastructure deployment to regulate stormwater overflow, significant in reducing water contamination and ensuring the health of river ecosystems. Further, endorsing eco-friendly farming practices and the support of sustainable fishing initiatives contribute to the protection of river wildlife. A collective effort is vital for the triumph of these strategies, demanding collaboration and shared ownership among key stakeholders such as local communities, conservation groups and governmental bodies, ensuring Cornwall's rivers flow into a sustainable future.


Cornwall's river wildlife is astonishingly varied and invaluable, playing an instrumental part in the wellbeing and operations of river ecosystems. This composition extensively covers fish species, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, flora, and vegetation inhabiting the streams of Cornwall. Concurrently, this study encapsulates the potential threats they face and the preventative measures in place for their protection. The undisputed fact is that Cornwall's rivers are teeming with a broad spectrum of wildlife, the conservation of which is vital for upholding biodiversity and steady ecosystem. Persisting with exploration and conservation work is an absolute priority to guarantee the enduring existence of these priceless species and nurturing their habitats.

Critical discoveries have emerged through the course of this investigation on Cornwall's river wildlife. Primarily, local fish species occupy a critical function in stabilizing the ecosystem, yet face population threats from pollution and habitat deterioration. Additionally, the existence of otters hints at the suitability of habitat for these elusive mammals. Other mammals, including bats and water voles, diversify river habitats. The various bird species observable along the river, along with their seasonal migrations, intensify the ecosystem's complexity. Reptiles such as adders and slow worms, amphibians like frogs and newts, occupy these habitats, with invertebrates like dragonflies and freshwater mussels serving as health indicators for rivers. Aquatic plants and riverside vegetation form vital habitats and contribute significantly to water health. Water pollution, a major hazard, underscores the necessity for vigilance and improvement. Rejuvenation projects have shown deserved progress in enriching these environments. Ecotourism and educational ventures can potentially heighten awareness about river wildlife preservation. Protections are fortified by conservation organizations, emphasizing the importance of inventive and sustainable management tactics in the face of climate change.

Persistent research and conservation work hold supreme importance for Cornwall's river wildlife. This research aids in filling knowledge gaps, thus facilitating comprehension of species activities, ecological interconnections, and environmental impact. This understanding is crucial for creating fruitful conservation policies and management agendas. It assist in identifying and countering threats including pollution, loss of habitat, and influences of climate change. Persistent research makes sure conservation efforts are grounded in evidence and ready to adapt to new conditions. It facilitates the tracking of species populace, habitat condition, and water health, providing valuable insight to evaluate the efficiency of conservation efforts and detect areas needing more intervention. Furthermore, persistent research encourages partnership and knowledge transfer among researchers, conservation groups, and local citizens, solidifying the united strive to safeguard and rejuvenate Cornwall’s river wildlife. This understanding enhances public participation and cognizance, motivating individuals to partake and back conservation undertakings. Ultimately, the vital protection and conservation of Cornwall's river wildlife and their habitats is impossible without ongoing research and conservation efforts.

Take that to the bank!

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